Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses
The decision to establish the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses was made in late 1990s.
In 1999 and later in 2001, two Cabinet Resolutions, No. 406 and No. 379, were adopted to approve the procedure for establishing the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses. The Ministry of Health of Ukraine was responsible for coordinating the establishment of the system.
Since the Ministry of Health of Ukraine had not established the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses from 1999 to 2013, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine approved changes to Article 18 of the Law of Ukraine “On Human Protection against Ionizing Radiation” at the end of 2012. In accordance with these changes, the doses for personnel and the public would have to be determined, accounted for, and controlled through a Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses. The State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine is responsible for the establishment and implementation of this system.
In 2014, this function was included into the Statute of the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, approved by Cabinet Resolution No. 363 dated 20 August 2014. In fact, SNRIU acquired the above-mentioned function only at the end of 2014.
At the end of 2014, the first national intercalibration of the individual dose measurement and monitoring laboratories was organized and performed jointly by the National Medical Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and SNRIU. The event was organized to evaluate the quality of individual dose measurement in Ukraine. Upon completion, a list of laboratories that had successfully passed the intercalibration was submitted to the corresponding licensees.
In 2014, SNRIU also developed draft Cabinet Resolution “On Approval of the Procedure for Establishing the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses”.
This draft required revision to comply with international and European radiation safety standards. In particular, it was needed to implement new approaches to national systems for control and accounting of individual doses. These are Articles 41-44, 51 and Annex X of the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom dated 5 December 2013 and paras. 19-25 of the International Basic Safety Standard: Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources, General Safety Requirements Part 3, published in 2014.
In accordance with the above international requirements, the competence of the regulatory bodies includes the establishment and support of national dose registers for the personnel working in zones affected by ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear energy activities. Such a register would contribute to the optimization of occupational doses.
In compliance with the European and international safety standards, the licensees and registrants are responsible for control of occupational doses, radiation monitoring at workplaces, drawing up a list of persons that undergo individual dose monitoring (IDM) and IDM data storage. Other organizations, institutions (measurement laboratories) may be in charge for providing consultation and engineering and guidance support for determination (measurement and calculation) of occupational doses.
National registers of occupational doses should also cover the accounting of doses for personnel who work at plants with natural radionuclide background, aircraft crews, individuals temporarily involved in activities carried out in zones subject to ionizing radiation (employees of coal, iron and uranium mines, construction companies, state inspectors and others).
The national legislation is currently revised to comply with international and European standards, including this area.
To comply more fully with the European legislation, SNRIU has studied in detail the experience in establishing the corresponding dose registries of other countries. Currently, national dose registers have been established and implemented in Turkey, Lithuania, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro, Macedonia and Croatia. As for the number of registered persons, the closest to Ukraine is Greece, where 32,610 persons have been registered. According to unofficial data, there are about 40,000 such persons in Ukraine.
Lithuania’s experience also can serve as an example for Ukraine, where a Unified Register of Occupational Doses and Radiation Sources has been in operation since 1999.
In conditions of limited resources, the most effective and feasible way at the initial stage to solve the issue of unified accounting and registration of doses may be extension of functions and authorities of the State Register for Radiation Sources.
Besides the optimization of occupational doses, being the main objective of establishing the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses, one should keep in mind other, no less important priorities.
First, they include the introduction of a unified guidance approach to determine and assess individual occupational doses in Ukraine and ensure the quality of measurements, which will improve radiation protection of nuclear facilities and staff working environment. Second, they focus on the achievement of the most reliable results of individual dose monitoring by developing the technical capabilities and competences of measurement laboratories. Third, it is important to further develop the Unified State System for Control and Accounting of Individual Doses to account for doses for critical groups of the public, employees of plants with natural radionuclide background and radon irradiation, and aircraft crews. As for the latter, these are new constituents of the international radiation protection system that are still to be implemented in Ukraine”.
The solution of these issues requires consolidated and joint efforts of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Medical Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, as well as other institutions, scientists and professionals in this area.
Uatom.org Editorial Board